Solar Minimum Update

Updated August 2, 2020: See the BOLD print below for the latest.

Has anyone noticed anything different about the Sun? Anything unusual? Well, there’s nothing different, nothing unusual. The Sun is just going through its normal cycle. So, if you’ve looked lately, you’ve probably noticed that Sunspots are becoming rarer. The Sun goes through cycles. These cycles are measured by the number of Sunspots seen on the Sun’s surface, that is, the Earth-facing side. Each cycle lasts for about 11 years, with slight variations of time in each cycle.

The solar cycle was discovered in 1843 by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe, and using other observations, reconstructed the cycle back to 1745. Prior cycles were reconstructed from observations going back as far as Galileo and others in the early 1600’s. We are presently in cycle 24.  Right now, the Sunspot number is decreasing, and it has been for some time. Let’s look at the numbers.

Cycle 24 peaked in April, 2014 with 101 Sunspots, the weakest in a hundred years. There was only 1 day in 2014 with no Sunspots. 2015 had 0 spotless days. 2016 had 32 spotless days. 2017 had 104 spotless days.

At the end of 2018, there were 221 total spotless days, yielding a yearly percentage of 61%. We had 281 total spotless days in 2019 for a yearly percentage of 77%. The last solar minimum of this magnitude was in 1913 with 311 spotless days. The NOAA/NASA Solar Cycle Prediction Panel had issued a new forecast. They believe that the current Solar Minimum will reach its deepest point in April 2020. Well, here we are in early August and it looks like we may be on the upswing. 

A new Sunspot emerged on July 22nd and is now nearing the far Earth-facing side of the  Southern hemisphere of the Sun. Sunspot 2767 is a member of the new Cycle 25. On July 29th, another new Sunspot appeared in the Northern hemisphere of the Sun. This one too, is a member of the new cycle 25. This is now the 12th time this year that Sunspots belong to the new solar cycle.

As of today, we have had 153 spotless days, yielding a yearly percentage of 72%.

Sunspots have a magnetic North and South Pole. The poles align with the Sun’s equator. Every solar cycle, the Sun’s poles reverse, as do the sunspot’s poles. 

On June 1st, the Stereo Spacecrafts which monitor the far side of the Sun, spotted a “disturbance” in the Northern hemisphere, which turned into a sunspot. It is a member of the new cycle 25. So far this year, 84% of all Sunspots have been part of the new Cycle 25.

But even with this minimum, there is still some activity to be observed. There is still the infrequent small (some large) prominence, flare or CME (Coronal Mass Ejection). And then there are the “holes” in the Sun’s atmosphere (coronal holes) that let stronger than normal streams of solar wind (charged particles), target the Earth’s atmosphere and produce those awesome auroras in the high latitudes. And on rare occasions, auroras have been seen in the upper US states. So if you have a solar telescope, keep watching, it’s not hopeless.

Keep checking back, we’ll keep you updated.